Wood Smoke and Particulate Pollution

Health Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution (general)

Health Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution on the Lungs

Wood Smoke Pollution/Black Carbon: Contribution to Greenhouse Gasses

Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution on Children

Toxins in Woodsmoke

Wood Smoke and Heart Attacks

Wood Smoke and Particulate Pollution

Particulate Matter. Environmental Protection Agency.

What is Particulate Matter? The American Lung Association.

Air Quality: Particles and Your Health. The Minnesota Department of Health.

Fine particulate matter source apportionment following a large woodstove changeout program in Libby, Montana. 2010. Ward T, Palmer CP, Noonan CW. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association.60: 688–93.

The impact of wood smoke on ambient PM2.5 in northern Rocky Mountain valley communities. 2010. Ward T, Lange T. Environmental Pollution .158:723–9.

Size-resolved organic speciation of wintertime aerosols in California’s Central Valley. 2010. Cahill TM. Environmental Science Technologies 1:44:2315–21.

Intake fraction of urban wood smoke. 2009. Ries FJ, Marshall JD, Brauer M. Environmental Science and Technology. 43:4701–6.

Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area. 2009. Sanhueza PA, Torreblanca MA, Diaz-Robles LA, Schiappacasse LN, Silva MP, Astete TD. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 59:1481–8.

Results of a residential indoor PM2.5 sampling program before and after a woodstove changeout. 2008. Ward T, Palmer C, Bergauff M, Hooper K, Noonan C. Indoor Air Journal. 18:408-15.

Wood smoke contribution to winter aerosol in Fresno, CA. 2006. Gorin CA, Collett JL Jr., Herckes P. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 56:1584–90.

Residential wood combustion technology review. Volume 1. Technical Report. 1998. Houck JE, Tiegs, PE. EPA-600/R-98-174a.

Long-term performance of EPA-certified phase 2 woodstoves, Klamath Falls and Portland Oregon: 1998-1999. 2000. National Risk Management Research Laboratory
Research (Triangle Park, NC) for the EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


Health Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution (general)

Wood Smoke Wafts Up Health Concerns. 2011. Katz, C. Scientific American.

Wood Smoke and Your Health. Brochure. Washington State Department of Ecology.

Wood Smoke Pollution Hazardous to Health. The American Lung Association.

Health Effects of Breathing Wood Smoke. Environmental Protection Agency.

Wood Smoke and Health. 2008. Bardin J. Presented at: The Air Toxics Summit. Washington State Department of Health.$FILE/Day1-Indoor-Air-Woodsmoke-Health.pdf

Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise. 2012. Cutrufello PT, Smoliga JM, Rundell KW. Sports Medicine. 42:1041-58.

Expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte interactions and oxidative stress in human endothelial cells exposed to wood smoke and diesel exhaust particulate matter. 2012. Forchhammer L, Loft S, Roursgaard M, Cao Y, Riddervold IS, Sigsgaard T, Møller P. Toxicology Letters. 209:121-8.

A case report of cor pulmonale in a woman without exposure to tobacco smoke: an example of the risks of indoor wood burning. 2008. Opotowsky AR, Vedanthan R, Mamlin JJ. The Medscape Journal of Medicine. 10:22.

Woodsmoke health effects: a review. 2007. Naeher LP, Brauer M, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT, Simpson CD, Koenig JQ, Smith KR. Inhalation Toxicology. 19:67–106.

Experimental exposure to wood-smoke particles in healthy humans: effects on markers of inflammation, coagulation, and lipid peroxidation. 2006. Barregard L, Sällsten G, Gustafson P, Andersson L, Johansson L, Basu S, Stigendal L. Inhalation Toxicology. 18:845–53.

Adverse health effects from ambient air pollution in relation to residential wood combustion in modern society. 2003. Boman BC, Forsber AB, Järvholm BG. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 29:251–60.

The toxicology of inhaled woodsmoke. 2002. Zelikoff JT, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Schlesinger RB. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Critical. Part B, Critical Reviews 5:269–282.


Health Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution on the Lungs

Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality. 2013. Gan WQ, FitzGerald JM, Carlsten C, Sadatsafavi M, Brauer M. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 187:721-7.

Clinical and pathological characteristics, outcome and mutational profiles regarding non-small-cell lung cancer related to wood-smoke exposure.2012. Arrieta O, Campos-Parra AD, Zuloaga C, Avilés A, Sánchez-Reyes R, Manríquez ME, Covián-Molina E, Martínez-Barrera L, Meneses A, Cardona A, Borbolla-Escoboza JR. Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 7:1228-34.

Differences in plasma MMPs and TIMPs protein expression and chemotherapy response in patients with tobacco- or wood-smoke-induced lung cancer. 2013. Gonzalez-Avila G, Delgado J, Mendoza-Posada DA, Sommer B, Ramos C, Aquino-Galvez A, Camacho C. Respiration. 85:281-8.

Emerging mechanistic targets in lung injury induced by combustion-generated particles. 2013. Fariss MW, Gilmour MI, Reilly CA, Liedtke W, Ghio AJ. Toxicology Science. 132:253-67.

Ambient wood smoke, traffic pollution and adult asthma prevalence and severity. 2013. Bui D, Burgess J, Matheson M, Erbas B, Perret J, Morrison S, Giles G, Hopper J, Thomas P, Markos J, Abramson M, Walters EH, Dharmage S. Respirology.

Adverse effects of wood smoke PM(2.5) exposure on macrophage functions. 2013. Migliaccio CT, Kobos E, King QO, Porter V, Jessop F, Ward T. Inhalation Toxicology. 25:67-76.

An air filter intervention study of endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodmoke-impacted community. 2011. Allen RW, Carlsten C, Karlen B, Leckie S, van Eeden S, Vedal S, Wong I, Brauer M. The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 183:1222-30.

Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase correlate with FEV(1) in patients with COPD associated with wood smoke exposure and tobacco smoking. 2010. Montaño M, Cisneros1 J, Ramírez-Venegas A, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Mercado D, Ramos C, Sansores RH. Inhalation Toxicology. 22:868-74.

Wood smoke exposure and gene promoter methylation are associated with increased risk for COPD in smokers. 2010. Sood A, Petersen H, Blanchette CM, Meek P, Picchi MA, Belinsky SA, Tesfaigzi Y. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2010. Kurmi OP, Semple S, Simkhada P, Smith WC, Ayres JG. Thorax. 65:221–228.

Wood smoke-associated lung disease: a clinical, functional, radiological and pathological description. 2008. Moran-Mendoza O, Perez-Padilla JR, Salazar-Flores M, Vazquez-Alfaro F. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 12:1092–8.

Endothelial dysfunction: associations with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic individuals. 2008. Schneider A, Neas L, Herbst MC, Case M, Williams RW, Cascio W, Hinderliter A, Holguin F, Buse JB, Dungan K, Styner M, Peters A, Devlin RB. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:1666–74.

Wood smoke exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2006. Orozco-Levi M, Garcia-Aymerich J, Villar J, Ramírez-Sarmiento A, Antó JM, Gea J. European Respiratory Journal. 27:542–6.

Shedding new light on wood smoke: a risk factor for respiratory health. 2006. Boman BC, Forsberg B, SandströmT. European Respiratory Journal 27:446–447.

Lung cancer pathogenesis associated with wood smoke exposure. 2005. Delgado J, Martinez LM, Sánchez TT, Ramirez A, Iturria C, González-Avila G. Chest.128:124–31.

Wood smoke inhalation causes alveolar instability in a dose-dependent fashion. 2005. Steinberg JM, Schiller HJ, Tsvaygenbaum B, Mahoney GK, DiRocco JD, Gatto LA, Nieman GF. Respiratory Care. 50:1062–70.

Exposure assessment of particulate matter for susceptible populations in Seattle. 2003. Liu LJ, Box M, Kalman D, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Wallace L. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives. 111:909–18.

Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. 2002. Pope CA, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, Thurston GD. Journal of the American Medical Association 287:1132–1141.

Air pollution and emergency room visits for asthma in Santa Clara County, California. 1997. Lipsett M, Hurley S, Ostro B. Environmental Health Perspectives 105: 216–22.


Wood Smoke Pollution/Black Carbon: Contribution to Greenhouse Gasses

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. 2013. TC Bond et al. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118:5380-552.

Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health. 2010. Jacobson, MZ. Journal of Geophysical Research. 115:D14209.

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants. 2009. Smith KR, Jerrett M, Anderson HR, Burnett RT, Stone V, Derwent R, Atkinson RW, Cohen A, Shonkoff SB, Krewski D, Pope CA 3rd, Thun MJ, Thurston G. Lancet. 374: 2035–8.

Subcontinental smut: Is soot the culprit behind melting himalayan glaciers? 2009. Castelvecchi D. Scientific American.


Effects of Wood Smoke Pollution on Children

Neurodevelopmental performance among school age children in rural Guatemala is associated with prenatal and postnatal exposure to carbon monoxide, a marker for exposure to woodsmoke. 2012. Dix-Cooper L, Eskenazi B, Romero C, Balmes J, Smith KR. 2012. Neurotoxicology. 33:246-54.

Residential air pollution and otitis media during the first two years of life. 2011. MacIntyre EA, Karr CJ, Koehoorn M, Demers PA, Tamburic L, Lencar C, Brauer M. Epidemiology. 22:81-9.

Effect of early life exposure to air pollution on development of childhood asthma. 2010. Clark NA, Demers PA, Karr CJ, Koehoorn M, Lencar C, Tamburic L, Brauer M. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118:284–90.

Influence of ambient air pollutant sources on clinical encounters for infant bronchiolitis. 2009. Karr CJ, Demers PA, Koehoorn MW, Lencar CC, Tamburic L, Brauer M. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine. 180:995–1001.

The effects of fine particle components on respiratory hospital admissions in children. 2009. Ostro B, Roth L, Malig B, Marty M. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117:475–80.

Changes in lung function and airway inflammation among asthmatic children residing in a woodsmoke-impacted urban area. 2008. Allen RW, Mar T, Koenig J, Liu LJ, Gould T, Simpson C, Larson T. Inhalation Toxicology. 20:423–56.

Fine particles, a major threat to children. 2007. Heinrich J, Slama R. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 210:617-22.

Childhood asthma and indoor woodsmoke from cooking in Guatemala. 2004. Schei MA, Hessen JO, Smith KR, Bruce N, McCracken J, Lopez V. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 14 Suppl 1:S110-7.

Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma: findings from the Children’s Health Study. 2004. Salam MT, Li YF, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. Environmental Health Perspectives. 112:760–5.

Maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight in zimbabwe. 2004. Mishra V, Dai X, Smith KR, Mika L. Annals of Epidemiology. 14:740–7.

Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children. 2004. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Kim JJ. Pediatrics. 114:1669–1707.

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. 2002. McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Margolis HG, Peters JM. Lancet. 359:386–391.

The effects of ambient air pollution on school absenteeism due to respiratory illnesses. 2001. Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Thomas DC, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, London SJ, Margolis HG, McConnell R, Islam KT, Peters JM. Epidemiology. 12:43–54.

Decline of ambient air pollution and respiratory symptoms in children. 2000. Heinrich J, Hoelscher B, Wichmann HE. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 161:1930–6.

Wood smoke: emissions and noncancer respiratory effects. 1994. Larson TV, Koenig, JQ. Annual Review of Public Health 15:133–56.

Wood-burning stoves and lower respiratory tract infection in American Indian children. 1990. Morris K, Morgenlander M, Coulehan JL, Gahagen S, Arena VC. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 144:105–8.


Toxins in Woodsmoke

Toxins in wood smoke. 2013. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency.

Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany. 2010. Bari MA, Baumbach G, Kuch B, Scheffknecht G. Air Quality and Atmospheric Health. 3:103-116.

The impact of domestic wood burning on personal, indoor and outdoor levels of 1,3- butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. 2007. Gustafson P, Barregard L, Strandberg B, and Sallsten G. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 9:23–32.

Critical review of the health effects of woodsmoke. 2005. Naeher LP, Smith KR, Brauer M, Chowdhury Z, Simpson C, Koenig J, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT. Report for the Air Health Effects Division, Health Canada, Ottawa. 1-75.

An estimation of dioxin emissions in the United States. 1995. Thomas VM, Spiro TG. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 50:1-37.

Wood smoke: Emissions and noncancer respiratory effects. 1994. Larson TV, Koenig JQ. Annual Review of Public Health. 15:133-156.

Dioxin levels in wood combustion—a review. 2004. Lavric ED, Konnov AA, De Ruyck JD. Biomass and Bioenergy. 26:115-145.

Fine particle and gaseous emission rates from residential wood combustion. 2000. McDonald JD, Zielinska B, Fujita EM, Sagebiel JC, Chow JC, Watson JG. Environmental Science Technology. 34:2080-2091.

Dioxin emissions from stationary combustion plants. 2005. Illerup JB, Henriksen TC, Nielsen OK, Nielsen M. Report of the National Environmental Research Institute (Roskilde, Denmark).

Dioxin emissions from domestic sources in Denmark and dioxin formation in wood stoves and boilers. 2008. Schleicher O. Report presented at the Expert Workshop on
Dioxin Emissions from Domestic Sources Monday, 7th July 2008 in Brussels, Denmark.


Wood Smoke and Heart Attacks

Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans. 2013. Unosson J, Blomberg A, Sandström T, Muala A, Boman C, Nyström R, Westerholm R, Mills NL, Newby DE, Langrish JP, Bosson JA. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 10:20.

Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. 2010. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA 3rd, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC Jr, Whitsel L, Kaufman JD; American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism. Circulation. 121:2331-78. or

Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. Epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. 2004. Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Thurston GD, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Godleski JJ. Circulation. 9:71-7.

Acute Respiratory Effects of Particulate Air Pollution. 1994. Dockery DW, Pope CA. Annual Review of Public Health. 15:107-32.

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: A statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. 2004. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC Jr, Tager I. Circulation. 109:2655-71.

Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. 2007. Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, Shepherd K, Sullivan JH, Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. New England Journal of Medicine. 356:447-58. or